Philosophy for Children: A Deliberative Pedagogy for Teaching Social Studies in Japan and the USA


  • Amber Strong Makaiau University of Hawaii at Manoa
  • Noboru Tanaka Gifu University, Japan


social studies, citizenship education, global citizenship, comparative study, Philosophy for Children, deliberative pedagogy


Two international social studies teacher educators and researchers (from Japan and the USA) use qualitative methods to systematically examine the impact of the philosophy for children Hawai‘i (p4cHI) approach to deliberative pedagogy on social studies teaching and learning in two countries. The study’s participants are two secondary level social studies teachers (from Japan and the USA) and their students. Data comes from class sessions that were video recorded in each country and transcribed. Collaborative analysis of the data produced three major themes: inquiry stance, inquiry topics, and the nature of the inquiry. At the study’s conclusion, the researchers share what they learned about implementing the p4cHI approach to deliberative pedagogy in two countries and how it can be used to prepare Japanese and American students for global citizenship in the 21st century.

Author Biographies

Amber Strong Makaiau, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Associate Specialist, Secondary Department, Institute for Teacher Education, College of Education University of Hawai‘i, Manoa

Director of Curriculum and Research Uehiro Academy for Philosophy & Ethics in Education University of Hawai‘i, Manoa

Noboru Tanaka, Gifu University, Japan

Associate Professor, Graduate School of Education, Gifu University, Japan