Principals' and Teachers' Reports of Instructional Time Allocations in Third Grade Abstract


  • Tina L. Heafner University of North Carolina at Charlotte
  • Paul G. Fitchett


School Administration, NCLB, Elementary School, Instructional Time, High Stakes Testing, Accountability, National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Schools and Public School Teacher and Principal Staffing Survey (SASS), English/Language Arts, Mathe


Using a paired national cross-section of third grade teacher and principal Schools and Staffing Survey data from 2007-2008, comparisons were made regarding teachers’ and elementary principals’ reports of instructional time distributions for English/Language Arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and reading in third grade during a full week of school. Examining how schools’ two most fundamental personnel converge and diverge in their reports of instructional time allocations, allowed researchers to compare, first, how teachers and principals report instructional time uses by subject area, and second, to determine if there were differences in reported time allocations between teachers and principals. Educational problems associated with instructional time emerge as conflicts in: (1) time as a function of administration and (2) time as a function of the classroom. 

Author Biography

Tina L. Heafner, University of North Carolina at Charlotte

Tina Heafner is a Professor in the Department of Middle, Secondary, and K-12 Education at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte.  She earned her Ph.D. in Curriculum and Instruction from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. At UNC Charlotte, her administrative responsibilities include directing the College of Education Prospect for Success, M.Ed. in Secondary Education and the Minor in Secondary Education. Tina's teaching and research focus on effective practices in social studies education such as professional development schools, technology integration, content literacy development, and service learning.  Other research interests include policy and curriculum issues in social studies and content-based online teaching and learning.  Publications include four co-authored books and three edited books.  She has published numerous articles in peer-reviewed journals such as Teacher's College Record, Educational Researcher, Kappa Delta Phi, Theory and Research in Social Education, Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, Teacher Education and Practice, Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education.