A Current Analysis of the Treatment of Japanese Americans and Internment in United States History Textbooks


  • Jeffrey Hawkins
  • Michael Buckendorf Will Rogers High School, Tulsa OK


social studies, teacher education


A content analysis of ten United States history textbooks (2005-2008) was conducted by the researchers to determine the current depiction of Japanese Americans and internment during the World War II era.  This study updates and expands upon the textbooks used in prior research by Romanowski (1995), Harada (2000), and Ogawa (2004) that had numerous considerations and recommendations for future textbook authors to consider when writing their new editions.  Based on the new United States history textbook editions covered for this study, it is concluded that support of some of their considerations and recommendations were taken care of, however, unfortunately others still are not.  Additionally, a new consideration for future textbook writers is encouraged by the researchers for clarification of/from interchangeable use of the very different meaning of the terms internment, relocation, and concentration camps.  



Author Biographies

Jeffrey Hawkins

Dr. Jeffrey M. Hawkins is an associate professor and is the director of the
secondary social studies program at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, OK.  In addition, his research interests regularly intertwine culturally responsive representations and anti-bias approaches in social studies materials via content analysis.  Dr. Hawkins holds a Doctorate of Education degree in Multicultural and International Education from the University of San Francisco.

Michael Buckendorf, Will Rogers High School, Tulsa OK

Mike Buckendorf is a social studies educator of United States Government
and Oklahoma History at Will Rogers High School in Tulsa, OK.  In addition, he is a guest curator at the Cultural and Historical Museum in Sand Springs, OK. Mr. Buckendorf holds a Masters of Science degree in Education from Oklahoma State University.