Violations of the Educational Rights of Disadvantaged Youth in the Global Age


  • Toni Fuss Kirkwood-Tucker Florida State University
  • Alejandro José Gallard-Martinez Georgia Southern University


Contextual mitigating factors, educational rights, cultural capital, educational inequities.


In the postmodern age, the ubiquitous processes of globalization have exacerbated violations of the basic human right to an education among underprivileged youth around the world. Researchers and policymakers have not given serious consideration to the criticality of context when addressing wide differences in academic performance between mainstream and disenfranchised youth in the United States and other nations. Cultural capital, habitus (Bourdieu, 1977), and other contextual mitigating factors (CMFs) (Gallard M., et al., 2013) act as important mitigating cultural, economic, and political contextual factors affecting the learning of students, and leading to educational inequities. Yet, educational policymakers and stakeholders have failed to be explicit about the influence of such CMFs on global differences in educational delivery, as well as data on educational achievement and performance within and across countries. Further, such failures of recognition have led directly to violations of educational rights promulgated in the United Nations’ Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC). Only by making CMFs explicit and understand their impact on all education reform efforts can decision-makers help disadvantaged youth to attain an equitable education and find their place in the global age.

Author Biographies

Toni Fuss Kirkwood-Tucker, Florida State University

Toni Fuss Kirkwood-Tucker is Professor Emeritá at Florida Atlantic University   and currently a Visiting Associate Professor in the School of Teacher Education at Florida State University

Alejandro José Gallard-Martinez, Georgia Southern University

Distinguished Chair - Goizueta Chair in Education Administration




Media Review